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CASPAF - 中國文字演進―胡進杉書法展


 

中國文字演進胡進杉書法展

 

The Development of Chinese Character Scripts

Calligraphy by HU Ching-San from Taiwan

 

中國文字演進胡進杉書法展

駐邁阿密臺北經濟文化辦事處(前稱北美事務協調委員會駐邁亞密辦事處)自中華民國77(1988)10在珊瑚閣市設立以來致力強化臺灣與佛羅里達間各領域雙邊關係。

為進一步推廣臺佛兩地交流及宣揚中華文化今年12月起駐邁阿密辦事處促成佛州中華學人協會與珊 瑚閣博物館首次合作辦理「中國文字演進」書法展展出臺灣知名書法家胡進杉先生作品希望藉此展覽豐富臺佛雙邊合作內容並在文化交流方面建立新里程碑。

本書法展作者胡進杉先生學養豐富現為國立故宮博物院圖書文獻處副處長此次應佛州中華學人協會邀請提供展現中國文字演進史的各式書法計 15 種字體希望藉此將中文書寫之美及中華文化的博大精深介紹給觀眾。

佛州中華學人協會自民國74(1985)年創立以來,在促進臺灣與佛羅里達間之科技合作及學術與文化交流等方面積極貢獻,能與名聞遐邇的珊瑚閣博物館合辦此一巡迴書法展的首展,極為榮幸。

臺灣向以領航中華文化為己任在文化保存與藝術傳揚方面不遺餘力書法展是靜態的歡迎所有的朋友們前往科技進步創新與文化生活多元的寶島臺灣觀光訪問實地體驗臺灣人民的熱情好客親眼目睹自由、民主、開放的社會裡人民的生活方式並觀賞寶島的富麗美景品嚐集合中外精華的著名美食及參觀藏有眾多瑰寶的國立故宮博物院!

佛州中華學人協  謹識


The Development of Chinese Character ScriptsCalligraphy by HU Ching-San from Taiwan

 

Since its establishment in October 1988 in Coral Gables“The City Beautiful,” the Taipei Economic and Cultural Office in Miami (TECO in Miami, formerly the Coordination Council for North American Affairs, Miami Office) has devoted itself to the promotion of bilateral relations between Taiwan and the State of Florida.

 

In order to further enhance Taiwan-Florida cultural exchange and advocate the richness of Chinese culture, TECO in Miami assists in presenting “The Development of Chinese Character ScriptsCalligraphy by HU Ching-San from Taiwan,” an exhibit jointly hosted by the Chinese American Scholars and Professionals Association of Florida (CASPAF) and the Coral Gables Museum. The exhibition, from December 5, 2014 to February 1, 2015, is the very first of a circuit exhibition displaying the calligraphic works of Mr. HU Ching-san. The presentation of Mr. HU’s work marks a milestone in cross-cultural exchange, as it enriches the cultural fabric shared between Taiwan and the State of Florida.

 

At the request of TECO in Miami and CASPAF, the cultivated and well-learned HU Ching-san, Deputy Chief Curator of the Department of Rare Books of the National Palace Museum of the Republic of China (Taiwan), has provided fifteen types of calligraphic art that depict the development of Chinese characters. Through introducing audiences to the beauty of Chinese calligraphy, the exhibition aims to display the depth and power of Chinese culture.

 

Since its establishment in 1985, the Chinese American Scholars and Professionals Association of Florida (CASPAF) has made great contribution to the strengthening of scientific, technical and academic, and cultural exchange between Taiwan and the State of Florida. CASPAF is proud to have the honor of co-hosting the exhibition premiere together with the renowned Coral Gables Museum.

 

Taiwan has long taken upon itself the role of a standard-bearer at the leading edge of Chinese culture, and has dedicated itself to the preservation of culture as well as the propagation of the arts. The host organizations welcome and encourage all friends to visit the technology-advanced and multi-cultural Taiwan. Go and experience the world-renowned hospitality and passion of Taiwanese people. See with your own eyes the way of living in a free, democratic, and open society. Enjoy the spectacular sceneries of this beautiful island. Taste the famous delicious cuisines that not only combine the essences of the old and the new, but are also from all over the world. And, most of all, be sure to visit the place that preserves a great many treasures – the National Palace Museum.
 

Chinese American Scholars and Professionals Association of Florida

 

INDEX
  1. 甲骨文 對聯 Oracle Bone Script (jiaguwen) couplet
  2. 鐘鼎文 論語 Bronze Vessel Script (zhongdingwen)
  3. 小篆 王維 漢江臨眺 Small Seal Script (xiaozhuan) poem A View from the Han River
  4. 簡牘文字 杜甫 望嶽 Bamboo Slip Script (jiandu) poem
  5. 隸書 常建 宿王昌齡隱居 Clerical Script (lishu) poem Staying Overnight at WANG Changling’s Retreat
  6. 章草 孟浩然 宴梅道士山房 Clerical-Cursive Script (zhangcao) poem. A Banquet at the House of the Taoist Priest MEI
  7. 魏碑 劉眘虛 五言律詩(闕題)Wei Stele Script (weibei) poem, Poem without Title
  8. 唐楷 崔顥 行經華陰 Regular Script (kaishu) poem Passing Huayin
  9. 草書 李商隱 隋宮 Cursive Script (caoshu) poem The Palace of the Sui Dynasty
  10. 行書 韋應物 滁州西澗 Running Script (xingshu) poem At Chuzhou on the Western Stream
  11. 行草 李白 廬山謠寄盧侍御虛舟 Semi-Cursive Script (xingcao) poem A Song of Lu Ridge to Ombudsman LU Xuzhou
  12. 藏文 金剛經 第十八分 Tibetan Script (zhangwen) The Diamond Sutra, Chapter 18
  13. 西夏文 金剛經 第三十二分 West Xia Regime (1032-1227 CE) Script (xixiawen) The Diamond Sutra, Chapter 32
  14. 八思巴文 孟郊 遊子吟 Mongolian Square Script (Phags-pa script) poem, A Traveller’s Song
  15. 滿文 論語 學而篇 Manchurian Script (manju hergen) of Confucius (551-479 BCE). The Analects, Xue-Er Chapter

文字編撰:王贊禹、盧浩文、賴媤琍、李素娜、邱曉琦、劉金鵬、張子慧
Chinese and English text compiled and edited by Philip WANG, Edward LOUK, Alexandra Reed LASLEY, Suna LEE, Hsiao-Chi CHIU, Leo LIU, and Joanna CHANG.

 


 

1


甲骨文
對聯

大好風月對罇酒  小有林泉集眾賓

Oracle Bone Script (jiaguwen) couplet

Savoring glorious scenery with mellow wine.

Crowding intricate garden with erudite guests.

               

甲骨文,又稱契文,主要為商朝(1765-1122 BCE)晚期王室用於占卜記事而在龜甲或獸骨上契刻的文字,為目前已知已成體系最早的中國文字,上承原始符號,下啟青銅銘文。現代的漢字即由甲骨文演變而來。
 

末金石學家王懿榮(1845-1900 CE)光緒二十五年(1899)河南安陽出土的甲骨上發現了甲骨文。目前學者已自發掘的16萬多片甲骨中,解出5千個不同的字,其中可確定辨認的有1,600多字
 

全世界蒐藏最多且已完善整理甲骨文的中華民國中央研究院自民國93(2004)起開始將保存的45千多片甲骨文進行數位典藏工作。
 

請參見:http://rub.ihp.sinica.edu.tw/http://rub.ihp.sinica.edu.tw/~oracle/home.htm

15.2 inches x 57 inches (each)

 

Most of the existing Oracle Bone Script have been excavated from Anyang, the seventh and last capital of the Shang Dynasty (1765-1122 BCE). Only in 1899 did the Garrison Commander WANG Yi-Zon (1845-08/04/1900) of the Qing Dynasty Capital Peking begin to notice that the inscriptions on the so-called “Dragon Bones” from Anyang were actually meaningful script. The Oracle Bone Script found to the present date were used from about 1300 BCE. It consists of short texts inscribed on ox scapulae and turtle plastrons, which were used for divination. Some 160,000 fragments with inscriptions of the Oracle Bone Script have been preserved. The inscriptions contain approximately 5,000 individual characters; 1,600 of which have been successfully deciphered by scholars. The Academia Sinica of the Republic of China (Taiwan) has the largest and most well-managed collection of oracle bones in the world, and since 2004, has undertaken the digitalization of its 45,000 bone fragments.

For more information, please visit: http://rub.ihp.sinica.edu.tw/ (website in Chinese version only) or http://rub.ihp.sinica.edu.tw/~oracle/home.htm

 


2



鐘鼎文
論語 學而篇

有子曰:禮之用,和為貴,先王之道斯為美。小大由之,有所不行,知和而和,不以禮節之,亦不可行也。
 

Bronze Vessel Script (zhongdingwen)
The Analects,
Xue-Er Chapter

YOU Tzu said, “In the actual practice of propriety, harmony is essential. This is what the ancient kings did so well—both the greater and the lesser abide by it. Yet be aware: if you understand harmony and use it, but do not structure yourself with propriety, things will not go well.”


鐘鼎文:亦稱金文,乃鑄或刻於青銅器上之文字。始於商朝晚期,盛於西周,紀錄內容多為當時社會,尤其是王公貴族的活動,多為祀典、賜命、征伐、圍獵及契約之事。以周宣王時期所鑄毛公鼎金文(又稱西周金文)為代表。據統計,其文約3,005字,可辨識者1,804字,比甲骨文略多。由於商周盛行青銅器,而青銅禮器以「鼎」為代表,樂器以「鐘」為代表,因其刻於金器、大鐘上,故稱鐘鼎文。

65.6 inches x 24 inches

請參見西周晚期宗周鐘及其銘文:

http://www.npm.gov.tw/exh99/bell/2_en.htm
http://www.npm.gov.tw/exh99/bell/big006_en.htm
http://www.npm.gov.tw/exh99/bell/big007_en.htm

http://www.npm.gov.tw/exh99/bell/big008_en.htm

毛公鼎文字:

http://www.npm.gov.tw/exh99/bell/big001_en.htm
http://www.npm.gov.tw/exh99/bell/big002_en.htm

http://www.npm.gov.tw/exh99/bell/big004.htm

The Bronze Vessel Script, also commonly referred to as the Bronze Script, were writing on ritual bronzes such as zhōng (bells) and ding (tripodal cauldrons) from the Shang Dynasty (1765-1122 BCE) to the Zhou Dynasty (1121-249 BCE) and even later. Early bronze inscriptions were almost always cast with a stylus in the wet clay of the piece-mold from which the bronze was then cast, while later inscriptions were often engraved after the bronze was cast. Inscriptions recorded activities for contemporary affairs, including those involving rituals, conferring positions or assignments, expeditions and battles, hunting, and making contracts among nobilities.

Please refer to Zong Zhou Zhong of the Late Western Zhou Dynasty and its casted script:

http://www.npm.gov.tw/exh99/bell/2_en.htm

http://www.npm.gov.tw/exh99/bell/big006_en.htm

http://www.npm.gov.tw/exh99/bell/big007_en.htm
http://www.npm.gov.tw/exh99/bell/big008_en.htm

Mao Gong Ding and its casted script:

http://www.npm.gov.tw/exh99/bell/big001_en.htm

http://www.npm.gov.tw/exh99/bell/big002_en.htm

http://www.npm.gov.tw/exh99/bell/big004.htm

 

論語:孔子和他的弟子及再傳弟子言行為主的匯編,是儒家重要的經典之一。

The Analects is a collection of aphorisms from Confucius, his disciples, and his disciples’ disciples. It is the most important book in Confucianism.

 

孔子(551-479 BCE),名丘,字仲尼。春秋末期魯國教育家與哲學家,曾任魯大司寇。刪詩書、訂禮樂、贊周易、著春秋,是儒學和儒家創始人。學不厭、教不倦,使孔子成為「至聖先師」。他主張有教無類,將前此貴族所獨有之禮樂教育普及於平民,學生多至三千人。西漢武帝時,董仲舒(179-104 BCE)進言罷黜百家獨尊儒術,奠定了儒家兩千年來的正統學派地位,孔子並被尊為萬世師表。
 

Confucius (551-479 BCE) was born into a rather impoverished family of noble descent in Lu State (within modern Shantung Province). His Chinese name was KONG Chiu, with a courtesy name Zhong-ni. After resigning from his post as minister of Lu State, he travelled to many parts of China. He was, and still is, regarded as the most famous Chinese philosopher and educator. His policy was to accept any person as a disciple, provided that the student was genuinely eager to learn. This idea was revolutionary in a society in which education was the exclusive privilege of the aristocracy. He is credited with educating 3,000 students. He is also one of the first Chinese philosophers to leave behind a collection of teachings that can be reliably ascribed to his philosophy - The Analects. Confucius authored or edited the following works: Classics of Poetry, Book of Documents, Book of Rites, I Ching, and the Spring and Autumn Annals. During the reign of Emperor Wu of the West Han Dynasty (141-87 BCE), the Confucian scholar and Imperial courtier DONG Zhong-Su (179-104 BCE) recommended and adopted the policy to “reject other schools of thoughts, [and] respect only Confucianism.” Since then, Confucius was highly regarded as the Model for All Ages.

 

有子有若(518-458 BCE),字子有,魯國人。「七十二賢」之一。

YOU Tzu (518-458 BCE), one of Confucius’ 72 best disciples, also born in Lu State.

 

白話譯文

有子說:禮法的運用,以和為貴。這是最美好的傳統,適用於一切事情。但僅知道「和為貴」是不行的,違反禮法而講「和」是絕對不行的。


3


小篆
王維 漢江臨眺

楚塞三湘接,荊門九派通。
江流天地外,山色有無中。
郡邑浮前浦,波瀾動遠空。
襄陽好風日,留醉與山翁。

Small Seal Script (xiaozhuan) poem

A View from the Han River

WANG Wei (699-759 CE)

Fort Chu sits where the three rivers meet,
Around Mt. Jingmen nine tributaries compete;
The Grand River surges, transcending heaven and earth,
Colors on the hills appear and fade as time goes forth;
Towns and burghs emerge on banks yonder,
Waves and tides thunder reaching far into the distance;
Enchanting is the scenery of Xiangyang on a day so fine,
The right time to stay and get drunk with my old chum.


        ※               
 

29.3 inches x 69.8 inches
 

小篆:秦始皇(260-210 BCE)統一六國後,厲行書同文,由宰相李斯(280-208 BCE)主政,為中國首次有系統地將文字標準化。因為是以秦國(770-206 BCE)使用的書體為基礎,因此小篆又被稱為「秦篆」。小篆的筆劃較細,在字形上呈長方形,結構左右對稱,給人挺拔秀麗的感覺。

請參見琅琊臺秦篆石刻拓本網頁:http://painting.npm.gov.tw/npm_public/System/View.jsp?ObjectID=23077

The Small Seal Script: Following the unification of China and the establishment of the Qin Dynasty (221-206 BCE), Qin Shi Huang (260-210 BCE) decreed to unify the system of writing. Prime Minister LI Si (280-208 BCE) thus implemented the Small Seal Script to be the official script used throughout the whole Empire. The Small Seal Script was also known as “Qinzhuan,” because it was modeled after the Large Seal Script from the earlier Kingdom of Qin (770-206 BCE). Compared to the Large Seal Script, the Small Seal Script is easier to write and appears more symmetrical, with long, even strokes in an oblong shape.

Please refer to the Rubbing of Lang-ya Terrace stone inscription: http://painting.npm.gov.tw/npm_public/System/View.jsp?ObjectID=23077

王維(699-759 CE),生於蒲州,詩人畫家,多才多藝,善於描寫山水景物和田園風光,成了山水田園詩派的傑出代表。佛教思想的介入,成為王維晚期作品避世的主導思想,人稱「詩佛」。蘇軾(1037-1101 CE)曾說:王維的「詩中有畫,畫中有詩」。

WANG Wei (699-759 CE), born in Puzhou (now Yuncheng, Sanxi Province), achieved eminence as a poet and a painter. He is especially known for his compositions in the Mountains-and-Streams (Shan Shui) poetry genre. A devout Zen Buddhist in his old age, WANG was posthumously known as the “Poet Buddha. SU Shi (1037-1101 CE) once commented: “The quality of WANG Wei’s poems can be summed up as that the poems hold paintings within them. Moreover, in observing his paintings, you can see that, within the painting, there is poetry.”

 

白話譯文

漢水流經楚塞,又接連折入三湘;荊門山處匯合九條水源。

浩瀚江水彷彿流到天地之外;朦朧山色遠在虛無飄渺中。

沿江的郡邑恰似浮在水面之上;水天相接的邊際,波濤激盪滾動。

襄陽的風景,著實令人陶醉讚嘆;我願留在此地,陪伴常醉的山翁。


4 簡牘文字 杜甫 望嶽

岱宗夫如何,齊魯青未了。

造化鍾神秀,陰陽割昏曉。


盪胸生層雲,決眥入歸鳥。


會當淩絕頂,一覽眾山小。 
 


Bamboo Slip Script (jiandu) poem


Staring at Mt. Tai


DU Fu (712-770 CE)


What shall I say of the Great Tai?
Its lush green covers the states of Chi and Lu,
Inspired and stirred by the breath of creation,
With the Twin Forces balancing day and night.
Deepening my breath toward opening clouds,
My eyes straining to see the home-coming birds.
When I shall reach the top and behold
All mountains made small in a single glance.
 



               

 


26 inches x 67.3 inches

簡牘文字:古人刻或寫在竹片、木片上的文字。簡牘是在紙普及之前用來記述的載體。所有出土古簡上之文字,皆用毛筆蘸黑墨書寫。未用漆書,亦不用刀刻。

漢簡:http://ndweb.iis.sinica.edu.tw/woodslip_public/System/Main.htm(僅中文)

The Bamboo Slip Script was known to be carved or inscribed on long, narrow strips of bamboo before the invention of paper. Yet the texts on all of the excavated bamboo strips are discovered to be written by brush in black ink. None of them were written with paint or carved by knife.

Please refer to the Bamboo Slip Script of the Han Dynasty: http://ndweb.iis.sinica.edu.tw/woodslip_public/System/Main.htm (Chinese only)

杜甫(712-770 CE),河南鞏縣人,作品對中國影響極深,傳詩約一千五百首。後人尊稱杜甫為「詩聖」,他的詩多描寫平民生活及戰亂流離,也被稱為「詩史」,是中國史上有名的社會詩人。

DU Fu (712-770 CE) was born in Gong County, Henan Province. His works hold enormous influence on Chinese literature; among which, approximately fifteen hundred poems have been preserved. His poetry reflects the conditions of his era, namely the suffering of the people from battles, drought, starvation, and displacement. DU was honored by later generations as the “Poet-Historian” and the “Poet-Sage.”

白話譯文

泰山啊,你究竟有多宏偉壯麗? 挺拔蒼翠緜延齊魯兩地。
造物者給了你瑰麗和神奇, 你高峻的山峰,把南北分成晨夕。
望層層雲氣升騰,令人胸懷盪滌, 看歸鳥迴旋入山,使人眼眶欲裂。
有朝一日,我總要登上你的絕頂, 把周圍矮小的群山一覽無遺!
 

 

5


隸書
常建 宿王昌齡隱居

清谿深不測,隱處唯孤雲。
松際露微月,清光猶為君。
茅亭宿花影,藥院滋苔紋。
余亦謝時去,西山鸞鶴群。

Clerical Script (lishu) poem

Staying Overnight at WANG Changling’s Retreat

CHANG Jian (708-765 CE)

Here, beside the clear fathomless lake,
You live accompanied by a lone cloud;
Clear through the pine the moon arrives
To be your own pure-hearted friend.
Resting beneath a thatched pavilion among the flowers’ shadow,
The dewy peonies flourish in their bed of moss.
Let me leave the world. Let me alight
On the western mountain with phoenixes and cranes.

65.7 inches x 28.7 inches

               

隸書:源於秦朝(221-206 BCE),在東漢(25-220 CE)時期達到頂峰,故有「漢隸唐楷」之稱。秦始皇(260-210 BCE)在書同文的過程中,命李斯(280-208 BCE)創立小篆後,也採納了程邈(生卒年不詳)整理的隸書。小篆書寫速度較慢,而隸書化圓轉為方折,提高了書寫效率。

何紹基(1799-1873 CE)隸書八言聯:http://painting.npm.gov.tw/npm_public/System/View.jsp?ObjectID=28938& (僅中文)

呂世宜(1784-1855 CE)隸書http://www.npm.gov.tw/exh96/donation9604/ch02.html

Although originating from the Qin Dynasty (221-206 BCE), the Clerical Script reached its climax in the following Han dynasty (206 BCE-220 CE). In conjunction with the Small Seal Script by LI Si (280-208 BCE), Qin Shi Huang (260-210 BCE) also accepted the Clerical Script, compiled by CHENG Miao (birth and death unknown). The highly rectilinear structure of the Clerical Script makes it easier and faster to write than the Small Seal Script.

8-character Couplet by HO Shaoji (1799-1873 CE): http://painting.npm.gov.tw/npm_public/System/View.jsp?ObjectID=28938& (Chinese only)

Clerical Script by LU Shiyi (1784-1855 CE): http://www.npm.gov.tw/exh96/donation9604/en02.html

 

常建(708-765 CE),唐玄宗開元十五年(727 CE)與王昌齡(698-756 CE)同登進士榜。詩多五言,常以山林、寺觀為題材,也有部分邊塞詩。詩語清新自然,意境清幽澄澈。作品中流露出淡泊名利的隱士情懷。

CHANG Jian (708-765 CE) passed the highest and most prestigious level of the imperial examination together with WANG Changling (698-756 CE) in 727 CE. Most of his poems are written in the 5-character-per-line style on the themes of forest and temples, while others depict hardships of life on the frontier. His style is fresh and natural, with a hint of tranquility and clarity. There is a mood of out-of-the-world reclusiveness imbued in his works.

 

王昌齡(698-756 CE)善寫場面雄闊的邊塞詩,多抒寫戰士憂國立功及邊城艱困環境與思鄉之情懷。其詩氣勢雄渾格調高昂尤其是將七絕推向高峰有「七絕聖手」的美譽。

WANG Changling (698-756 CE) is best known for his poems describing the wide expanses, hardships, heroic deeds, and military confrontations in the frontier regions of northwestern China. His poems contain a powerful, lofty, and ebullient sweep. Elevating the 7-character-per-line genre of Chinese poetry to its peak, he was regarded as the “Master of 7-character-per-line poems.”

 

白話譯文

清澈的溪水深不可測,王昌齡隱居的地方,只有孤獨的雲;
隱隱透過松林露出月亮,灑下來的清光,專門前來陪伴昌齡。

茅草亭裡留滯著花影,芍藥圃滋生著青苔。
看來我也該避世而去,學著歸隱,回到西山,與鸞鶴為侶。


6

 


章草
孟浩然 宴梅道士山房
 

林卧愁春盡,搴帷覽物華。

忽逢青鳥使,邀入赤松家。

丹竈初開火,仙桃正發花。

童顏若可駐,何惜醉流霞。

 

 

Clerical-Cursive Script (zhangcao) poem
 

A Banquet at the House of the Taoist Priest MEI

MENG Haoran (689-740 CE)

 

In my hammock among the woods, grieving that spring must end,
I draw the curtain to savor nature’s splendor.
All of a sudden, a bluebird bade me come
To his dwelling-place among the crimson pine.
What a flame for his alchemical crucible

Immortal peach-trees magical with blooming buds! 
If childish features could be kept forever and ever,
Why should we care about being drunken with the rosy-flowing wine.
 




               
 

章草:漢初,為減省或連綴隸書的筆畫,開始出現了隸書的草書,由於漢章帝(57-88 CE)喜好草書,因此被稱為章草,特點是字字獨立。


王澍(1668-1743 CE)《書積書巖帖》〈臨章草急就章〉:http://painting.npm.gov.tw/npm_public/System/View.jsp?ObjectID=36646& (僅中文)
 

21.3 inches x 64.3 inches

The Clerical-Cursive Script (zhangcao) functions primarily as a kind of shorthand script or calligraphic style. Developed during the Han Dynasty (206 BCE-220 CE) as a cursory way to write the popular but inchoate Clerical Script, the Cursive Script was favored by Emperor Zhang (57-88 CE) and commonly called zhangcao.

“Imitating Clerical-Cursive Script Extemporization” by WANG Shu (1668-1743 CE): http://painting.npm.gov.tw/npm_public/System/View.jsp?ObjectID=36646& (Chinese only)

 

孟浩然(689-740 CE):唐代山水田園詩派代表作家之一。年青的時候在家鄉鹿門山(今湖北襄陽)隱居讀書,到了四十多歲,才到京城長安應考進士,想求得一官半職,大展政治抱負,可惜願望未能實現,但和王維(692-761 CE)、李白(701-762 CE)、王昌齡(698-765 CE)等結成了詩友。詩多以景物風光及山水田園生活為題材。
 

MENG Haoran (689-740 CE), except during a brief pursuit of an official career in his forties, mainly lived in and wrote about the Lu-meng Mounts (east of Xiangyang, Hubei Province) where he was born and raised. MENG was a major influence on contemporary and subsequent poets of the Tang era (618-907 CE) because of his focus on the theme of nature in his poetry.

 

白話譯文
 

高臥林下,正愁思春光將盡,掀開帘幕,欣賞著良辰美景。

忽然遇見神仙(指梅道士)的信差,原來是赤松子邀請我訪問他家。

煉丹的金爐灶剛剛升火,院中仙桃也正好滿樹開花。

如果仙酒真可以保住童顏,就不要吝惜流霞酒,且暢飲一番。


7


魏碑
劉眘虛 五言律詩(闕題)
 

道由白雲盡,春與青溪長。
時有落花至,遠隨流水香。
閑門向山路,深柳讀書堂。
幽映每白日,清輝照衣裳。
 

Wei Stele Script (weibei) poem

Poem without Title

LIU Sheng-Xu (714-? CE)

On a road outreaching the white clouds,
The spring air permeates along the blue stream,
Petals come drifting with the wind,
The brook carrying their fragrance all the way.
My quiet gate faces a mountain trail,
And among the willow trees lodges my study.
Sunlight sifts through the dense foliage,
my garments reflect the clear and soft light.

65.6 inches x 28.6 inches

               

魏碑:也稱北碑,是南北朝時期北朝的碑刻書法作品。現存的魏碑書體都是楷書,因此有時也把這些楷書碑刻作品稱為「魏楷」。這些碑刻作品主要是以「石碑」、「墓誌銘」、「摩崖」和「造像記」的形式存在的。

東魏李仲璇(473-538 CE)修孔子廟碑碑陰http://painting.npm.gov.tw/npm_public/System/View.jsp?ObjectID=5121&type=2 (僅中文)

The Wei Stele Inscription (weibei) refers to the calligraphic works on stele inscriptions of the Northern Dynasty (439-581 CE) in the period of the Northern and Southern Dynasties (420-589 CE). The style is characterized by elegant, natural, and poised strokes, emitting a sense of sturdiness and simplicity.

Rubbing from the Tablet for the Repair of the Monument of the Confucius Temple by LI Zhongxuan (473-538 CE): http://painting.npm.gov.tw/npm_public/System/View.jsp?ObjectID=5121&type=2 (Chinese only)

 

劉眘虛(714-? CE):自幼聰穎,八歲作文上書,受到皇帝賞識,拜為童子郎。但日後仕途失意,壯年辭官南歸,遊歷各地。晚年定居洪州(今江西省靖安縣),築「深柳讀書堂」,著書自娛。為山水田園派詩人。

LIU Sheng-Xu (714-? CE) was noted for his cleverness since childhood. At the age of eight, he wrote a letter to the emperor who appreciated his talents so much he was thus appointed Tongzilang (child scholar). His career in officialdom, however, did not fare well during adulthood. Frustrated, he resigned and traveled to the south, settling in Hongzhou (now Jingan County, Jiangxi Province). In his later years, LIU established the Willow Study Hall, amusing himself by collecting books. He has been classified as a landscape-pastoral poet.

 

白話譯文

山路被白雲隔斷在塵境之外,春光宛若清清溪流源遠緜長。

不時有落花隨溪水飄流而至,遠遠地就可聞到水中的芳香。

閒靜的荊門面對蜿蜒的山路,柳蔭深處正是我讀書的齋堂。

和煦的陽光穿過柳蔭的幽靜,清新的光輝便灑滿我的衣裳。

8


唐楷
崔顥 行經華陰


岧嶢太華俯咸京,天外三峰削不成。

武帝祠前雲欲散,仙人掌上雨初晴。
河山北枕秦關險,驛路西連漢畤平。
借問路旁名利客,何如此處學長生?

 
 

Regular Script (kaishu) poem
 

Passing Huayin

CUI Hao (704-754 CE)
 

Overlooking Capital Xianyang

the majestic Hua Ridge towers high;

Three divine peaks, not carved by mortals, point to the sky,

Facing Emperor Wu’s mausoleum,

clouds are about to disperse.

Over the peaks of the Fairy’s Palm,

the sky clears after rain.

 

Along the dangerous northern corridor

the rivers and mountains rest.

Leading to the Altar of Han,

the wide road stretches westward.

May I ask those seeking fame and wealth,

Why not stay and learn

the art of the immortal way?
 


               

34.7 inches x 69 inches
 

唐楷:唐朝(618-907 CE)楷書方面的成就最為後世推崇,字體以法度嚴謹著稱,在中國書法史上與秦篆與漢隸並列。

唐顏真卿(709-785 CE)自書告身》:http://painting.npm.gov.tw/npm_public/System/View.jsp?ObjectID=24978& (僅中文)

The Regular Script (kaishu) is considered to have matured stylistically during the Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE). It is famous for the strictness and clearness of its strokes. In Chinese calligraphy, the Regular Script of the Tang Dynasty ranks alongside the Small Seal Script of the Qin Dynasty (221-206 BCE) and the Clerical Script of the Han Dynasty (206 BCE-220 CE).

Assignment Order” by YEN Zhenqing (709-785 CE): http://painting.npm.gov.tw/npm_public/System/View.jsp?ObjectID=24978& (Chinese only)

崔顥(704754 CE),汴州(今河南開封)人。唐玄宗開元十一年(723 CE)登進士第。少年時詩多寫閨情,後至邊塞任職,詩風轉為雄渾奔放。

CUI Hao (704 -754 CE), born in Bianzhou (now Kaifeng, Henan Province), passed the highest level of the imperial examinations at the age of 19. In his youth, CUI’s poetry was imbued with passion and romance. After being assigned to a frontier fortress, he began to write with even greater unrestraint and ebullience.

 

華陰:地在華山之北。中國傳統以山南為陽,山北為陰;水北為陽,水南為陰。

故淮陰自在淮河之南,而衡陽因在衡山之南而名。

Huayin is a city located on the north side of Hua Ridge. Traditionally, the Chinese regarded the southern side of a mountain and northern side of a river as “yang,” and the northern side of a mountain and southern side of a river as “yin.” By the same token, Huaiyin is located on the south side of Huai River, and Hengyang is on the south side of Heng Ridge.

 

白話譯文

巍峩的華山,俯視這京城咸陽。插入天外鬼斧神工般的三座巨峰,不是人工可以做成。
在武帝陵廟前的烏雲即將散盡,那仙人掌山峰卻已是雨後天青。
壯麗的山河北邊緊臨的函谷關險隘。驛路大道向西延伸,直到漢皇帝祭拜天地的地方。
借問一下那些沽名釣譽的人,不如留在這裡學仙修佛,以求得長生之道。


9

草書 李商隱 隋宮

紫泉宮殿鎖煙霞,欲取蕪城作帝家,
玉璽不緣歸日角,錦帆應是到天涯。
於今腐草無螢火,終古垂楊有暮鴉,
地下若逢陳後主,豈宜重問後庭花。

 

Cursive Script (caoshu) poem

The Palace of the Sui Dynasty

Li Shangyin (813-858 CE)
 

The Palace of Sui has soared and been absorbed in the clouds, Emperor Suiyang desires to relocate his Capital to Yangzhou.
Had the Imperial Seal not been seized by the Prince of Tang, Sui’s brocaded boat could have sailed to every corner of China.
Now fireflies flying in rotten meadows disappear;
To the ancient willow trees crows still return at sunset.
Should he meet the dethroned Emperor Chen in the netherworld, Would it be appropriate for him to even mention the song Harem Flowers?

 

65.5 inches x 21 inches


               

草書:漢初,為減省或連綴隸書的筆畫,開始出現了隸書的草書,由於漢章帝(57-88 CE)喜好草書,因此被稱為章草,特點是字字獨立。後來楷書出現,逐漸出現楷書的草書,書寫迅速,往往上下字相連,稱為今草。到了唐朝,草書成為書法藝術,也演變出了「狂草」。

孫過庭(648-703 CE)《書譜》:http://www.npm.gov.tw/exh92/treasure/chinese/pic/t2-1.htm

及其釋文 http://www.npm.gov.tw/exh92/treasure/chinese/pic/t2-3.htm

狂草,唐懷素(錢藏真737-799 CE)《自敘帖》http://www.npm.gov.tw/exh100/treasures/cn/images/img6_5s.jpg

The Cursive Script (caoshu) functions primarily as a kind of shorthand script or calligraphic style. Developed during the Han Dynasty (206 BCE-220 CE) as a cursory way to write the popular Clerical Script, the cursive way of writing was favored by Emperor Zhang (57-88 CE) of the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220 CE) and called zhangcao. The characters of the Cursive Script are written closely and linked together. With the emergence of the Regular Script from the Wei Kingdom (220-265 CE) to the Jin Dynasty (265-420 CE), the Modern Cursive (jincao) was developed. Apart from the Clerical Cursive and the Modern Cursive styles, there is also the Wild Cursive (kuangcao) style which developed in the Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE) and became exclusively an art form.

Please refer to:

“On Calligraphy” by SUN Guoting (648-703 CE): http://www.npm.gov.tw/exh92/treasure/chinese/pic/t2-1.htm

As in modern print font http://www.npm.gov.tw/exh92/treasure/chinese/pic/t2-3.htm

“Autobiography” by Huaisu (CHIEN Cangzhen, 737-799 CE): http://www.npm.gov.tw/exh100/treasures/cn/images/img6_5s.jpg

李商隱(813-858 CE),字義山,自號玉谿生,懷州(今河南沁陽)人。中國詩史上最唯情的詩人。時代環境的壓力及錯亂反常的命運造成他悲劇性的性格,才氣超乎常人,感情豐富細膩,詩中多呈現淒美之的魅力。由於極為關心現實和國家命運,現存約六百首詩中,有關時政的詩佔了六分之一。
 

LI Shang-yin (813-858 CE), born in Huaizhou (now Xinyan, Henan Province), was one of the most passionate poets in the history of Chinese literature. LI’s tragic character was formed out of the pressure of his living environment and his deranged fate. Being a talented and passionate poet, LI often conveyed charming pathos in his poems. His concern about the fate of the state is seen in that one sixth of his 600 poems focus on the politics of his time.

 

陳後主:(陳叔寶553-604 CE)南北朝時陳朝末代皇帝,在位七年(583-589 CE)。性淫逸、縱酒、好做艷辭,不理朝政,亡於隋。
 

Dethroned Chen Emperor, CHEN Shubao (553-604 CE) was the last emperor of the Chen Dynasty. During his reign he indulged himself in women and wine, ignoring state affairs. He was dethroned by the Sui Dynasty. Harem Flowers is one of his most infamous songs of lust.

 

白話譯文
 

長安城的隋宮,鎖閉在籠罩的煙霞之中;隋煬帝卻想把遙遠的揚州作為帝業基地。
若不因天命,玉璽歸屬龍鳳之姿的李淵;隋煬帝的錦緞龍舟,早已該駛遍天際。
如今腐草中,螢火蟲已絕了蹤跡;隋堤的楊柳枝上,唯有暮鴉的聒啼。
隋煬帝荒淫而亡國,黃泉若遇陳後主,豈敢再提亡國的歌舞曲《後庭花
》?


10



行書
韋應物 滁州西澗

獨憐幽草澗邊生,上有黃鸝深樹鳴。

春潮帶雨晚來急,野渡無人舟自橫。

 

Running Script (xingshu) poem

At Chuzhou on the Western Stream

WEI Yingwu (737-791 CE)
 

I only like the tender grasses that spread along the stream,
Where trills of orioles echo in the forest’s deep shade.
The downpour of last night hastens the speed of floods,
An unguarded ferryboat docks at the water near the ferry.





               
 

行書:介於楷書及草書間的一種字體。楷書的草化,或草書的楷化。一說是在東漢(25-220 CE)年間劉德升(生卒年不詳)所創。

王羲之(303-361 CE)《蘭亭集序》、顏真卿(709-785 CE)《祭侄文稿》、蘇軾(1037-1101 CE)《寒食帖》並稱三大行書,真跡現皆存藏於中華民國國立故宮博物院,相關網站如下:

20.4 inches x 58 inches

蘭亭集序:http://painting.npm.gov.tw/npm_public/System/View.jsp?ObjectID=21904&type=1

祭侄文稿:http://www.npm.gov.tw/exh97/chintang/cht_image5.html

寒食帖:http://www.npm.gov.tw/zh-tw/Article.aspx?sNo=04001005

另可參考黃庭堅(1045-1105CE)《書寒山子龐居士詩》:http://tech2.npm.gov.tw/sung/html/obw/t2_1_a15.htm#r

The Running Script (xingshu) is a style of calligraphy containing elements of both the Regular Script and Cursive Script styles. Legend has it that the Running Script was founded by LIU De-sheng (birth and death unknown) during the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220 CE).

All of the best and representative manifestations of Running Script writings (i.e., “The Orchid Pavilion Preface” by WANG Xizhi (303-361 CE), “Draft of Requiem to My Nephew” by YEN Zhenqing (709-785 CE), and “The Cold Food Observance” by SU Shi (1037-1101 CE)) are preserved at the National Palace Museum in Taipei, Republic of China (Taiwan). The linked web pages are as follows:

The Orchid Pavilion Preface: http://painting.npm.gov.tw/npm_public/System/View.jsp?ObjectID=21904&type=1

Draft of Requiem to My Nephew: http://www.npm.gov.tw/exh97/chintang/cht_image5.html

The Cold Food Observance: http://www.npm.gov.tw/zh-tw/Article.aspx?sNo=04001005

Also, please refer to “Hansan Poetry” by HUANG Tingjian (1045-1105 CE): http://tech2.npm.gov.tw/sung/html/obw/t2_1_a15.htm#r

韋應物(737─792 CE),長安杜陵人(今陜西省西安)。曾任蘇州刺史。一生嚮往山野林泉,故詩作多描寫田園風物,詩風淡泊樸實、高雅空靈。山水詩中亦不乏雄豪氣勢。

WEI Ying-wu (737─792 CE) was born in Duling, Changan (now Xian, Shanxi Province). Formerly serving as the Suzhou magistrate, WEI greatly loved his beautiful and idyllic surroundings, which are reflected in his graceful poetry. Lyrical and elegant, his Shan Shui (Mountain and Stream) poetry contains an air of heroic grandeur.
 

白話譯文

獨獨憐愛澗邊生長的幽幽小草,樹陰深處黃鶯自得的啼鳴。

前晚的春雨使潮水漲得更急,郊野渡口上,沒人看顧的渡船兀自橫泊在河裏。


11

行草 李白 廬山謠寄盧侍御虛舟
 

我本楚狂人,鳳歌笑孔丘。
手持綠玉杖,朝別黃鶴樓。
五嶽尋仙不辭遠,一生好入名山遊。
廬山秀出南斗旁,屏風九疊雲錦張,影落明湖青黛光。
金闕前開二峰長,銀河倒挂三石梁。
香爐瀑布遙相望,迴崖沓障凌蒼蒼。
翠影紅霞映朝日,鳥飛不到吳天長。

登高壯觀天地間,大江茫茫去不還。
黃雲萬里動風色,白波九道流雪山。
好為廬山謠,興因廬山發。
閒窺石鏡清我心,謝公行處蒼苔沒。
早服還丹無世情,琴心三疊道初成。
遙見仙人彩雲裏,手把芙蓉朝玉京。
先期汗漫九垓上,願接盧敖遊太清。

Semi-Cursive Script (xingcao) poem

A Song of Lu Ridge to Ombudsman LU Xuzhou
LI Bai (701-762 CE)

I am the lunatic of Chu State
Who sings a satire ridiculing Confucius.
In my hand I hold a cane of green jade,
and bid farewell to the morning at the Yellow Crane Tower.
Visiting the five Mounts without worry of its distance,
Such is my incorrigible habit of searching for fairies.
Lu Ridge stands beside the South Dipper,
The Nine-panels enshrouded in gorgeous clouds of brocade,
the image of the summit reflecting off of a turquoise lake.
The Golden Gate opens into two steep mountains.
A silver waterfall streams down to the three stone bridges,
Within sight of the remote Incense Burner Falls.
Overlapping ledges of cliff and winding trails lead the way to the sky.
Magnificent are the sunrise scarlet clouds reflecting off the blue mountains.
The Wu sky is vast when viewed from the summit.
Climbing to the top of Lu Ridge to survey the whole world,
I see the Yangtze River running to the point of no return,
The oscillations of yellow clouds float thousands of miles,
The scenery on the river banks changes constantly,
Snow-like waves swirl in the nine streams of the Yangtze River.
I am singing a song dedicated to Lu Ridge,
My desire to write poems is inspired by Lu Ridge.
Looking at the Stone Mirror makes my heart serene.
Green moss has covered the footsteps of Master Xie.
I have taken the immortal elixirs and feel unattached to mundane chores.
Before the lute’s third song, I have achieved my fairyhood.
I watch as distant immortals ride the colored clouds
Toward Heaven’s Jade Palace with lotus flowers clasped between their hands.
And so, once I have traversed the ninth heaven of Paradise,
May we tour the Great Purity (Paradise) together.

20.2 inches x 68.6 inches (each)
20.2 inches x 68.6 inches (each)
xxx
 
 

               

行草:介於行書與草書之間的字體,比行書潦草,但較草書易於辨識。

王羲之(303-361 CE)不快帖:http://painting.npm.gov.tw/npm_public/System/View.jsp?ObjectID=43829&type=1 (請點按圖版)

(1051-1107 CE)蜀素帖:http://www.npm.gov.tw/exh100/treasures/cn/img6_6.html

蘇軾(1037-1101 CE)赤壁賦:http://tech2.npm.gov.tw/sung/flash/index.asp?ID=t2_1_a09

王鐸(1592-1652 CE)草書:http://www.npm.gov.tw/zh-TW/Article.aspx?sNo=04001018

The Semi-Cursive Script (xingcao) is a cursive style derived from the Clerical Script. Its form is not as shortened as seen in the Cursive Script, but appears with greater fluidity compared to the Running Script. Most people who can read the Regular Script can also read the Semi-Cursive Script.

“Grudging” by WANG Xizhi (303-361 CE): http://painting.npm.gov.tw/npm_public/System/View.jsp?ObjectID=43829&type=1 (click graphic)

“On Sichuan Silk” by MI Fu (1051-1107 CE): http://www.npm.gov.tw/exh100/treasures/cn/img6_6.html

“Ode on the Red Cliff” by SU Shi (1037-1101 CE): http://tech2.npm.gov.tw/sung/flash/index.asp?ID=t2_1_a09

Semi-Cursive Script by WANG Duo (1592-1652 CE): http://www.npm.gov.tw/zh-TW/Article.aspx?sNo=04001018

李白(701-762 CE),生於西域碎葉城(今吉爾吉斯共和國吐克馬克),字太白,幼年遷居蜀郡青蓮鄉(今四川省江油縣內),故號青蓮居士。杜甫(712-770 CE)稱李白的詩作有「筆落驚風雨,詩成泣鬼神」的藝術魅力。有「詩仙」之稱的李白一生作品極多,現存詩九百餘首。許多詩作不論老少都可琅琅上口,對後代影響深遠。

傳說他在舟中醉酒賞月,欲撈水中月而死。詩歌創作題材廣泛,加以一生際遇起伏,早年與晚年詩風大為不同。

LI Bai (701-762 CE), also known as LI Tai-bai, was born in Xueiye (now Tokmak, Kyrgyzstan). In his childhood, he moved to Qing-lian Village, Shu Province (now Jiangyou County, Sichuan Province). His poems have such artistic charm that, in the words of his contemporary poet DU Fu (712-770 CE), “strokes of his pen generate storms, and the completion of a poem moves even gods and ghosts.” Dubbed the “fairy poet,” over 900 poems have been preserved from his prolific writing. Many of his poems have stood the test of time and are well appreciated by both young and old.

Stories about LI Bai’s death vary significantly. One story suggests that his death was precipitated one evening when he tried to catch the reflected moon in the water. The inebriated LI drowned instead. Reflective of the fate of life’s ups and downs, LI’s poetic style and subjects varied widely throughout the early and late part of his life.

白話譯文

我本是楚國的狂人,高唱鳳歌譏笑孔丘。

手執綠玉做的枴杖,早晨我辭別黃鶴樓。

為著尋仙,我不辭遙遠地遍訪五嶽,平生中,我最愛好到名山去遨遊。

廬山高聳,與天上的南斗星靠近,五老峰的九疊屏,好像雲霞展開,那墨綠色的山影湖光相映襯,綺麗俊秀。

金闕前香爐峰和雙劍峰,高聳對峙,三石樑的瀑布,恰似銀河倒掛飛流。

香爐峰的瀑布,與此遙遙相望,峻崖環繞,峰巒重疊直至天上。

蒼翠的山色映著朝陽,紅霞更加絢麗,在鳥飛不到的峰頂,俯視著寬廣的吳地天空。

登上廬山縱覽天地,才領略天地壯觀,俯瞰茫茫長江東流,永去不還。

萬里黃雲起伏,景色不斷變幻,長江九條支流,翻滾著雪山般的白浪。

愛做讚美廬山的歌謠,詩興都因廬山所觸發。

對石鏡峰窺看,我更加心清意暢,謝靈運當年遊處,早已被青苔掩藏。

我早就服了還丹,對世俗毫無情念,修練到心和神悅的境界,就覺得仙道已經初成。

向遠處看去,仙人們正駕馭著彩雲,手捧芙蓉到玉京山,去朝拜天尊。

我早與汗漫仙人,相約在九天之頂,心想接你這位盧敖,一起往太清同遊。

 

 

12

藏文 金剛經 第十八分

佛告須菩提,爾所國土中,所有眾生若干種心,如來悉知。何以故。如來說諸心皆為非心,是名為心。所以者何。須菩提,過去心不可得,現在心不可得,未來心不可得。
 

Tibetan Script (zhangwen) with original Han Script (hanwen) quotation

The Diamond Sutra, Chapter 18

The Buddha said to Subhuti: “I know the mind of every living being in all the host of universes, regardless of any modes of thought, conceptions or tendencies. For all modes, conceptions and tendencies of thought are not the mind. And yet they are called the mind. Why? It is impossible to retain a past thought, to seize a future thought, and even to hold onto a present thought.”

 

58 inches x 20.5 inches

               

金剛經:佛教一部很重要的經典,對中華文化與禪宗有著鉅大的影響。整部經的要旨在闡述宇宙萬法皆假因緣和合而生,緣聚則生,緣散則滅,故空無實體,以此令眾生了悟諸法無我、諸行無常之理,進而能去除對世間一切相的執著,過著無住的生活得解脫自在。另一方面說明般若智慧人人本具,不假外求,只能向內心去挖掘。

從《金剛經》中可以如實了知,佛教是以人為本的人間佛教,修行是在日常生活中修,離開生活也就沒有「般若」,也就無法了解「空」理了。

20世紀初出土於敦煌的《金剛經》,印於唐懿宗(859-873 CE)咸通九年(868 CE),為現存世界最早的印刷品之一,藏於大英圖書館其較古騰堡1455年在德意志採用活字印刷術印刷的《古騰堡聖經》大約早587年。

 請參見:http://lib.ihp.sinica.edu.tw/pages/03-rare/dunhuang/01-1.htmhttp://idp.bl.uk

The Diamond Sutra is one of the most important Buddhist sutras (scriptures). It has tremendous influence on Chinese culture and in Zen Buddhism. The theme of the sutra lies in revealing the fact that all phenomena and everything in the universe are created and terminated according to previous causes or chance meetings of certain circumstances. Nothing has a fixed nature in its own right. As a result, we can therefore realize the fundamental principles that nothing lasts forever and there is no “I.” Furthermore, people can lead an unencumbered and carefree life by removing all sorts of attachments.

On the other hand, the sutra also illustrates that everyone has the intrinsic Prajñāpāramitā, or “Perfection of Wisdom” which does not require outward searching. It exists right in our hearts. The sutra clearly shows that the core of Buddhist philosophy is to humanize Buddhism, and we should cultivate our spirituality in daily life. There will be no Prajñā (Wisdom) if we fail to cultivate and practice it in daily life, and we certainly will not be able to comprehend the true meaning of “void.”

A copy of the Chinese version of
The Diamond Sutra, found among the Dunhuang manuscripts in the early 20th century by Aurel Stein, dates back to May 11, 868 CE. It is, in the words of the British Library, “the earliest complete survival of a dated printed book.” This is approximately 587 years before the Gutenberg Bible was first printed in Germany in 1455.

Please visit: http://lib.ihp.sinica.edu.tw/pages/03-rare/dunhuang/01-1.htm or http://idp.bl.uk


白話譯文
 

佛對須菩提說:(不必遠說多如恆河沙的其他世界,就即便是)近在你的國土中,所有人的心,隨情而遷,逐境而生,顛倒妄想,各有所思,種種不一,如來我皆盡見盡知。這是什麼緣故呢﹖因為通常所說的一切心,皆只是眾生的妄心,不是本性中常住的真心,瞭解了不是妄心的心,才能展現出菩提的本體,纔可以稱之為心。什麼緣故呢﹖須菩提!我所說的非心,是常住的真心,寂然不動,物至則覺。過往沒有什麼留滯而不去的心,現在沒有什麼執著而永遠銘記的心,而對未來也沒有什麼預期而憧憬的心。(反觀於內,則三心總不可得。知其不可得,則清清淨淨的般若現出,所謂人心淨而道心生,這纔是菩提的真心。)

13

西夏文 金剛經 第三十二分

須菩提!若有人以滿無量阿僧祇世界七寶,持用布施。若有善男子、善女人,發菩提心者,持於此經,乃至四句偈等,受持、讀誦,為人演說,其福勝彼。云何為人演說?不取於相,如如不動。何以故?一切有為法,如夢幻泡影;如露亦如電,應作如是觀。

 

West Xia Regime (1032-1227 CE) Script (xixiawen) with original Han Script (hanwen) quotation

The Diamond Sutra, Chapter 32

The Buddha said to Subhuti: “If anyone gave to the Buddha an immeasurable quantity of the seven treasures sufficient to fill the whole universe; and if another person, whether a man or a woman, in seeking to attain complete Enlightenment were to earnestly and faithfully observe and study even a single verse of this Sutra and explain it to others, the accumulated blessing and merit of that latter person would be far more.

Subhuti, how can one explain this Sutra to others without holding in mind any arbitrary conception of forms or phenomena or spiritual truths? It can only be done, Subhuti, by keeping the mind in perfect tranquility and free from any attachment to appearances.

So I say unto you—
This is how to contemplate our transient existence in this mundane world:

Like a tiny drop of dew, or a bubble floating in a stream;
Like a flash of lightning in the sky,

Or an illusion, a phantom, or a dream.

So is all conditioned existence to be seen.”

32.75 inches x 70 inches

               

西夏(1038-1227 CE):為原居四川松潘高原的黨項族所建,唐朝(618-907 CE)時遷居陝北。先後臣服於唐朝、五代諸朝(897-979 CE)宋朝(960-1279 CE)金朝(1115-1234 CE)崛起並滅遼(916-1225 CE)、北宋(960-1127 CE)後,與西夏建立同盟蒙古帝國(1206-1259 CE)崛起,六次入侵西夏, 於公元1227年亡於蒙古。
 

The West Xia Regime (1038-1227 CE) inherited the political and social structures of the Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE), further developing an already outstanding civilization. Their territory encompassed the present Ningxia, Gansu, eastern Qinghai, and northern Shaanxi region, covering approximately 310,000 square miles. In the beginning of the thirteenth century, Genghis Khan (1162-1227 CE) unified the northern grasslands of Mongolia and led the Mongol troops to carry out six rounds of attacks against the West Xia Regime. After the West Xia capital was overrun in 1227 CE, the Mongols annihilated its architecture and written records.

 

金剛經:佛教一部很重要的經典,對中華文化與禪宗有著鉅大的影響。整部經的要旨在闡述宇宙萬法皆假因緣和合而生,緣聚則生,緣散則滅,故空無實體,以此令眾生了悟諸法無我、諸行無常之理,進而能去除對世間一切相的執著,過著無住的生活得解脫自在。另一方面說明般若智慧人人本具,不假外求,只能向內心去挖掘。
 

從《金剛經》中可以如實了知,佛教是以人為本的人間佛教,修行是在日常生活中修,離開生活也就沒有「般若」,也就無法了解「空」理了。

20世紀初出土於敦煌的《金剛經》,印於唐懿宗(859-873 CE)咸通九年(868 CE),為現存世界最早的印刷品之一,藏於大英圖書館其較古騰堡1455年在德意志採用活字印刷術印刷的《古騰堡聖經》大約早587年。

請參見:http://lib.ihp.sinica.edu.tw/pages/03-rare/dunhuang/01-1.htmhttp://idp.bl.uk

The Diamond Sutra is one of the most important Buddhist sutras (scriptures). It has tremendous influence on Chinese culture and in Zen Buddhism. The theme of the sutra lies in revealing the fact that all phenomena and everything in the universe are created and terminated according to previous causes or chance meetings of certain circumstances. Nothing has a fixed nature in its own right. As a result, we can therefore realize the fundamental principles that nothing lasts forever and there is no “I.” Furthermore, people can lead an unencumbered and carefree life by removing all sorts of attachments.

On the other hand, the sutra also illustrates that everyone has the intrinsic Prajñāpāramitā, or “Perfection of Wisdom” which does not require outward searching. It exists right in our hearts. The sutra clearly shows that the core of Buddhist philosophy is to humanize Buddhism, and we should cultivate our spirituality in daily life. There will be no Prajñā (Wisdom) if we fail to cultivate and practice it in daily life, and we certainly will not be able to comprehend the true meaning of “void.”

A copy of the Chinese version of
The Diamond Sutra, found among the Dunhuang manuscripts in the early 20th century by Aurel Stein, dates back to May 11, 868 CE. It is, in the words of the British Library, “the earliest complete survival of a dated printed book.” This is approximately 587 years before the Gutenberg Bible was first printed in Germany in 1455.

Please visit: http://lib.ihp.sinica.edu.tw/pages/03-rare/dunhuang/01-1.htm or http://idp.bl.uk

 

白話譯文

佛對須菩提說:如果有人以無量無數的世界七寶廣為布施,當然多福;但比起普通的善男信女,發廣大普濟的大願,受持金剛經,不但要求自己明心見性,還到處傳布,助人能自見其性,這後一種的福報,比前一種更多。但應如何傳布呢﹖要不著相,要不動心。這是什麼緣故呢?因為凡世間,一切作為,現滅不常,如同夢境、如同幻緣、如同浮泡、如同虛影、如同朝露即乾、如同電光忽過,凡屬有為,要以領悟這六種現象的心態去觀察與認知。


14

八思巴文 孟郊 遊子吟

慈母手中線,遊子身上衣。

臨行密密縫,意恐遲遲歸。

誰言寸草心,報得三春暉。

 

Mongolian Square Script (Phags-pa script) poem

A Traveller’s Song

MENG Jiao (751-814 CE)
 

The thread in the hands of an amiable mother
Makes clothes for the body of her wayward son;
Carefully she sews and thoroughly she darns,
Dreading the delays that will keep him away from home.
But who says the heart of the inch-long grass
Can repay the warmth of the spring sun?

60.4 inches x 24 inches

               

八思巴文:元世祖忽必烈(1215-1294 CE)時,國師八思巴(1238-1279 CE)根據吐蕃文而制定的文字。然當時蒙古帝國已分裂為大元和四大汗國,八思巴字只有元朝(1279-1367 CE)採用。明朝(1368-1644 CE)推翻元朝後,八思巴字遂廢棄不用。
 

The Mongolian Square Script (Phags-pa Script) is a writing style designed by the Tibetan monk and vice-king, Drogön Chögyal Phags-pa (1238-1279 CE), for Emperor Kublai Khan (1215-1294 CE) of the Yuan Dynasty (1279-1367 CE). Its usage was limited to the Yuan Dynasty and later fell out of use with the advent of the Ming dynasty (1368-1644 CE).

 

孟郊(751-814 CE),字東野,湖州武康(浙江德清)人。現存詩歌五百多首,以短篇的五言古詩最多,代表作即為此首《遊子吟》。
 

MENG Jiao (751-814 CE) was born in Huzhou (now Deqin, Zhejiang Province). Most of his 500 some poems are written in the 5-character-per-line style, amongst which A Traveller’s Song is the most famous.

 

白話譯文

慈祥和藹的母親拿著針線,為將要出遠門的孩子縫衣服。一針一線很細密的縫,既擔心孩子在外面受凍著涼,又憂心孩子在外面遲遲不回來。子女的孝心就像微小的草,如何才能報答慈母偉大的養育恩情啊!


15

滿文 論語  學而篇

子曰:弟子入則孝,出則弟,謹而信,汎愛眾而親仁,行有餘力,則以學文。

 

Manchurian Script (manju hergen) of Confucius (551-479 BCE). Remarks with original Han Script (hanwen) quotation

The Analects, Xue-Er Chapter
 

Confucius said: “A young man should serve his parents at home and be respectful to the elders outside his home. He should be earnest and truthful, loving towards all, and cultivating of his friendship with moral people. After all this, if there is time, he can study literature and art.”


              

滿文公元1599年,清太祖高皇帝努爾哈赤(1559-1626 CE)詔命依蒙古文字創製滿文,約30年後,清太宗皇太極(1592-1643 CE)命達海(1595-1632 CE)進一步改進完善滿文。清朝(1644-1911 CE)前期,政府官文書以滿文為主,康熙(1661-1722 CE)、雍正(1678-1735 CE)起,官文書開始滿漢合璧。


The Manchurian Script (manju hergen) was derived from the Mongolian script. Nurhaci (1559-1626 CE) ordered the creation of the Manchurian script in 1599. His son, Hong Taiji (1592-1643 CE), ordered Dahai (1595-1632 CE) to further develop and enrich it. In the beginning of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911 CE), the official writing system was only Manchurian script. Since the dominions of the Kangxi Emperor (1661-1722 CE) and the Yongzheng Emperor (1678-1735 CE), all official documents gradually started to use Manchurian and Han scripts in tandem.



論語:孔子和他的弟子及再傳弟子言行為主的匯編,是儒家重要的經典之一。


The Analects is a collection of aphorisms from Confucius, his disciples and his disciples’ disciples. It is the most important book in Confucianism.

22 inches x 59.1 inches

孔子(551-479 BCE),名丘,字仲尼。春秋末期魯國教育家與哲學家,曾任魯大司寇。刪詩書、訂禮樂、贊周易、著春秋,是儒學和儒家創始人。學不厭、教不倦,使孔子成為「至聖先師」。他主張有教無類,將前此貴族所獨有之禮樂教育普及於平民,學生多至三千人。西漢武帝時,董仲舒(179-104 BCE)進言罷黜百家獨尊儒術,奠定了儒家兩千年來的正統學派地位,孔子並被尊為萬世師表。

Confucius (551-479 BCE) was born into a rather impoverished family of noble descent in Lu State (within modern Shantung Province). His Chinese name was KONG Chiu, with a courtesy name Zhong-ni. After resigning from his post as minister of Lu State, he travelled to many parts of China. He was, and still is, regarded as the most famous Chinese philosopher and educator. His policy was to accept any person as a disciple, provided that the student was genuinely eager to learn. This idea was revolutionary in a society in which education was the exclusive privilege of the aristocracy. He is credited with educating 3,000 students. He is also one of the first Chinese philosophers to leave behind a collection of teachings that can be reliably ascribed to his philosophy - The Analects. Confucius authored or edited the following works: Classics of Poetry, Book of Documents, Book of Rites, I Ching, and the Spring and Autumn Annals. During the reign of Emperor Wu of the West Han Dynasty (141-87 BCE), the Confucian scholar and Imperial courtier DONG Zhong-Su (179-104 BCE) recommended and adopted the policy to “reject other schools of thoughts, [and] respect only Confucianism.” Since then, Confucius was highly regarded as the Model for All Ages.

 

白話譯文

孔子說:「做一個學生,在家應當孝順父母,出外應當恭敬師長,做事應謹慎說話要誠信,對眾人要平等友愛,特別應該親近有仁德的人,如此修行還有餘力,再向書本文字上用功。」